World Bank

“it is important to consider how major tax bases—labor income and consumption—are likely to evolve over the long term. With the number of contributors to payroll taxes shrinking and non-labor income increasing as societies in the region age, the tax base will shift increasingly from labor income to consumption. As a result, to ensure sustainable financing for future large social obligations, it might be necessary to consider a gradual shift from payroll to consumption taxes (e.g., VAT and excises) and other underutilized instruments (e.g., property taxes). There are also employment and growth reasons why considering fiscally prudent reduction in labor taxes, particularly for low wage earners might be a good idea.”


The World Bank on carbon pricing: 

"Carbon pricing offers a potential “double dividend” by providing both environmental benefits and the possibility of reducing more distortionary taxes (such as those on labor or capital) by recycling carbon revenues."

"(...) resources raised by carbon-pricing schemes can contribute to attracting more jobs and investments by improving more important factors, such as education and workers’ skills or infrastructure, and by reducing capital and labor taxes that are more distortive than carbon pricing."

From: World Bank (2015) Decarbonizing Development. Three Steps to a Zero-Carbon Future.  


“Pricing carbon is inevitable." 

"Businesses see that carbon pricing is the most efficient and cost-effective means of tackling the emissions challenge. But if they want to maintain growth in a climate-impacted world, companies cannot wait for governments to act. Many companies are already working within a carbon-pricing system and are developing expertise in managing their emissions. (…) “There is also a growing body of evidence that corporate disclosure on climate change correlates well with strong financial performance."

From: Rachel Kyte, World Bank Group Vice President and Special Envoy for Climate Change, in CDP (2014) Corporate use of carbon prices. Commentary from corporations, investors and thought leaders.


"From China to California, South Africa to Australia, new carbon pricing initiatives are emerging. Over 40 national and 20 sub-national jurisdictions have either implemented or are considering mechanisms that put a price on carbon."

From: World Bank (May 29, 2013) Domestic Carbon Pricing Initiatives Offer Hope for Future Market


The World Bank on pesticide taxes: 

"Pesticide use and toxicity could be ‘decoupled’ by a pesticide tax"

In Sweden, a tax on fertilisers reduced demand by 15-20 per cent and also reduced financially optimal dosages by about 10 per cent (early 90s).

From: World Bank Group (2003) Fertilizer and Pesticide Taxes for Controlling Non-point Agricultural Pollution